By Randy Engel
Early in the fall of 2019, Associate Editor Robert Shine of the pro-homosexual pseudo-Catholic New Ways Ministry published an article titled “Pope Francis Phones Prominent Gay Theologian and Priest James Alison, Restores Him to Ministry.”
As reported by Shine, the call from the pope to English-born Alison in São Paulo, Brazil, came on Sunday, July 2, 2017, at about 3 p.m., but the call wasn’t made public until two year later on September 28, 2019, in The Tablet, a London Catholic weekly.
Here is Alison’s recollection of that call:
Him: ‘Soy el Papa Francisco’; Me: ‘¿en serio?’; Him: ‘No, en broma hijo’ (‘This is Pope Francis’; ‘Are you serious?’; ‘No, just joking, son’). But it was he. The Argentinian accent, but more the fact that he knew the content of my letter, and was clearly referring to it as he spoke, clinched for me that this was no prank played by a cruel friend.
“And then this: ‘I want you to walk with deep interior freedom, following the Spirit of Jesus. And I give you the power of the keys. Do you understand? I give you the power of the keys.’ I said, ‘Yes’, though in retrospect, how, in my daze, I thought I had understood the gift is beyond me. The conversation went on, talking with humour, and even a certain piquancy, about friends and acquaintances in common. In the background a hint of lyric opera, which I strained to recognise. After urging me to discretion, not to cause problems for good bishops, he ended with ‘Pray for me. I’ll look up your dossier and get back to you.’”
According to Alison, he was laicized, that is returned to the lay state, by the Church’s Congregation for the Clergy in the 1990s and forbidden to teach, preach or preside. The sentence was deemed “unappealable.” All this, he said, without the benefit of knowing the charges against him and without legal representation.
Eighteen months after his laicization, Alison managed to have a friendly (Jesuit) bishop meeting in a private audience with Pope Francis plead Alison’s case. The bishop also hand delivered a letter from Alison who informed the pope that he intended to disregard the laicization document which bore no specific signature and he planned on continuing on as a priest in good standing.
Alison said he asked Francis, before the end of his telephone conversation with the pope, to make his situation “regular,” not for his own sake, but “as part of opening up wider ministerial possibilities in the Church for LGBT people to speak, preach, evangelize in the first person, no longer bound by the dreaded ‘they’ of clerical dishonesty.”
Later, Alison recalled his conversation with Francis as a call that was an “extraordinary mercy.” He believed that Francis did not hold his own Congregation’s ruling as binding and that the pope “clearly treated him as a priest with universal jurisdiction to hear confessions.”
Alison concluded his commentary on the pope’s call as follows:
That [Francis] was trusting me to be free to be responsibly the priest that I have spent all these years becoming; that for the first time in my life in the Church I had been treated as an adult by an adult, and, good Lord! It takes the Pope himself to act like that. Thirty years a priest, and it feels as though only now is my ordination kicking in. Having received, in addition, such freedom, how now should I exercise a ministry? With whom and for whom? In what good ways to be accountable, and to whom? Pope Francis has talked about this being a change of epoch rather than an epoch of change. What is going to be the shape of ministry in the Church that is being birthed? What is the form and style of teaching? These are, thank heaven, up in the air in ways I could never have imagined when as a frightened and classically-minded youth I lay prostrate before a bishop on a cold floor in 1988, full of intellectual certainty, hoping for some emotional security to match: and instead received from the Holy Spirit a 30-year blast into adulthood.
The Shine article closes off with comments from Francis DeBernardo, Executive Director of New Ways Ministry, who stated that:
The pope’s restoration of priestly office to Fr. Alison is a great blessing for this theologian, who, even in a form of exile, has so faithfully served the church and the LGBTQ [Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer] community.
It is also a great sign of affirmation to gay priests, showing that despite official denigrations of them from the Vatican, the pope is willing to act pastorally to affirm one of their number. It is another sign that Pope Francis is trying to change the way the church responds to the LGBTQ community.
This, then, is New Ways Ministry’s version of the Alison/Bergoglio encounter.
This writer knew of Mr. Alison many years ago from his residence and activities at Most Holy Redeemer Parish, “a Queer positive sacred place” in the Castro District of San Francisco. Let me give you my version of his case beginning with some revealing facts of Alison’s childhood and teen years that Shine and De Bernardo failed to reveal in their euphoria over Francis’s alleged reinstatement of Alison’s priestly faculties.
Life at an English Boarding School
James Alison was born on October 10, 1959, in London, into a well-off middle-class Anglican family. His father, Rt. Hon. Michael Alison served as a Conservative Member of Parliament from 1983 to 1987, and Parliamentary Private Secretary to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Friends called James’s father “universally popular,” and critics labeled him “a cold, churchy fish.” Prominent family friends included Billy Graham, Chuck Colson and Doug Coe.
In his biographical data, James Alison volunteers almost nothing about his early childhood, or his relationship with his parents and his younger siblings including a brother and sister. However, we do know that his parents sent him off to an English boarding school at a fairly early age.
Historically known for homosexual experimentation including solitary and mutual masturbation and buggery, and boyhood crushes and homoerotic attachments, the all-male setting of the contemporary boarding school provided Alison with his first boyhood “love” (unreciprocated) at the age of nine.
The practice of habituated autoeroticism, aka, the “solitary vice” has always been seen as a major component of the etiology of homosexuality. Research studies on the early masturbatory experiences of adult homosexuals indicate that they learned to masturbate by being masturbated by another male, and that “learning through experience seems to be an important pathway to later sexual preference.” Where the initiator of the “sex play” is an older boy or man, especially one the younger boy admires or desires to befriend, the seduction can be identified as a form of “sexual abuse.”
In his oral history for the LGBTQ Archives, Alison explains that while the Bible he studied at boarding school spoke of love as being a good, his church and school viewed homosexual attachments negatively. At the age of 12, at a different school, Alison says he “fell in love” for a second time with a Catholic boy, and with Catholicism, much to his Anglican father’s displeasure (but apparently young James’ pleasure).
In 1978, before going up to the university, Alison spent a year working at a printing firm in Bogotá, Colombia. It was here, he said, that he visited a Catholic cathedral where he had a religious experience of “pure and huge joy,” that God [and later Padre Pio] accepted him as a “gay” man. When he returned to England he informed his parents that he was “gay.” Later that same year, he converted to Catholicism, and began his studies at the New College of Oxford University.
Alison Joins the Dominican Order
In 1980, the emotionally fragile Alison embarked on his student exchange year to Mexico City, Mexico, where he joined the company of the Dominicans. By this time, the Dominican Order was “gone with the wind,” and an “Equal Opportunity Employer” when it came to accepting homosexuals into the novitiate. Alison lists pro-“gay” advocate and former Master General Timothy Radcliffe as one of his Dominican mentors.
Beginning at the age of 22, Alison served out his postulancy and novitiate with the Dominicans in Mexico. His Novice Master was José Raúl Vera López, an alumnus of the Angelicum in Rome and the current Bishop of the Diocese of Saltillo, who according to Alison, “has grown into a strong gay ally in Mexico.”
In 1983, Alison returned to England and joined the Dominican House of Formation at Blackfriars in Oxford. Then in a turn-about, in 1987, Alison decided to continue his theological studies with the Jesuits at the Instituto Santo Inácio in Belo Horizonte, Brazil where he earned his doctorate. Alison, who had taken his Dominican vows years earlier, was ordained to the Catholic priesthood in 1988.
It was in Brazil that Alison joined an AIDS ministry. And It was here that he met one of his early sexual partners, Laércio, who died of AIDS in late 1994.
Alison Argues His Orders Were Null and Void
According to Alison, between 1994 and 1995, “after years of attempting to be truthful within the Dominican order, (he) realized that his belonging to that order [Dominicans] was null, dependent in his case on the false premise of gay people being objectively disordered and thus celibacy being obligatory.”
After Alison left the Dominicans, he returned to his parents’ home in England, where he began a writing career as a layman centered on the application of the anthropological theories of René Girard to a systemic Christian theology. He also became an international advocate for the LGBTQ movement in San Francisco [Most Holy Redeemer Parish], Mexico, Columbia, and Chile. In 2008, he received a fellowship from the René Girard Foundation which brought him financial stability. It also enabled him to live in Brazil permanently and expand his ideas on the Mimetic theory of René Girard, who appears to have become a father figure for Alison. About this time, Alison again “fell in lust” with a young man who had experienced a traumatic childhood, and whom he later “adopted,” with Alison becoming the young man’s family and father.
On July 6, 2012, the liberal magazine Commonweal published an interview between James Alison and Brett Salkeld, an archdiocesan theologian for the Archdiocese of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. The reader will note that Alison’s comments on his canonical status as stated in the 2012 Salkeld interview are apparently different from subsequent statements made seven years later when he received the now (in)famous call from Francis:
BS: What is your current canonical status? How does it relate to your status as an “out” homosexual, or your public views about homosexuality?
JA: My current canonical status is anomalous. I am a validly ordained priest in good standing, with no penalties or disciplinary matters hanging over me. Although it is many years since I have been associated with the Dominican Order, I have not been laicized. I am not incardinated into any diocese, though I am in principle available to be so incardinated, should a bishop want to have me. Apparently, this is a legal situation that, like limbo, doesn’t exist. Yet, I’m in it (and with the paper trail to show how the situation arose)!
As I understand it, the situation is as follows: I have made public a reasoned disagreement with the current third-order teaching of the Roman Congregations concerning the “objectively disordered” nature of the “homosexual inclination.” The logical consequences of my view are many, but include the consequence for me personally that both the vows binding me to a religious order (since dissolved by the appropriate authority at the conclusion of an amicable process) and the public commitment to celibacy I made at the time of my ordination are null. This is because, at the time of my ordination—whose validity a Roman Congregation has confirmed to me—I still believed the church’s characterization of who I am (a defective heterosexual with an automatic nonnegotiable obligation to celibacy) to be true. Thus I made a public commitment under what I later discovered to be a falsely bound conscience. Such a commitment would be null, in the same way a forced marriage is null.
… Any ordinary who took me on would not only be accepting that my public position on matters gay is at least defensible by a priest in good standing without any demand for retraction; he would also be taking on board, with full knowledge of what he was doing, someone whose public commitment to celibacy is null, since taken under a false conscience. Indeed, he would be taking on board someone for whom such a commitment could not validly be made for as long as the church’s current characterization is in force. It’s not clear to me how any ordinary could do this unless he received some sort of dispensation to do so from the highest authorities in the church.
I should say, in case it is of interest to your readers, that at no stage since I exposed my conscience in this area to a Roman congregation in 1996 has any church authority made any attempt to persuade me of the falsity of my position.
In practical terms, with no one responsible for me, I have to work out for myself how to exercise a priestly ministry without any juridical backing. So I preside at sacraments only when invited to do so by the appropriate authority (which does happen from time to time), or when those present are in a situation of some irregularity themselves (for example, when I’m leading retreats for gay priests or laity), or know about, and are not scandalized by, the anomaly of my own situation.
Alison Insists He Was Born “Gay”
The above arguments made by Alison are based on his doctrinal belief that homosexuals are “born that way.” He claims that “the biological configurations that will manifest in a person being gay or lesbian are in place prenatally,” and that, a la Kinsey, homosexuality is based “on the recognition of the regular, normal and non-pathological nature of the minority variant in the human condition (like left- handedness).”
According to Alison, “it now seems to me a mistake to think that sexual trauma, abuse, or any post-natal psychological factors are causative of a same-sex orientation, though I think that such things can indeed affect the way any of us receives into our lives, and are able to live out, that pre-natal configuration of our capacity for love.”
Clearly, he ignores his very own early homoerotic experiences at boarding school and his tenuous relationship with his own father.
The Catholic Church is in Need of Conversion
Not surprisingly, in his interviews and writings, Alison insists that it is the Roman Catholic Church that is in need of conversion and not the sodomite:
I’m moved in these by the conviction that since the Church is inspired by the Holy Spirit, and since everything that is true, whatever its apparent source, comes from the Holy Spirit, therefore there must be a way in which the Church can find its way into truthfulness in this area. This, despite the formidable fears and anger which come to the surface as authentic new knowledge emerges in whose light it becomes clear that previous views were based on taboo, and thus are not from God.
So these are some of the directions that I wanted to ask us to push, these if you like are the discipline of the heart. If the discipline of the imagination is more a ‘Stop thinking in certain ways’, then the discipline of the heart is ‘What’s the shape in which Jesus is inviting us to be configured to his heart?’ How are we going to be stretched into the sign of a Church that doesn’t yet exist, that’s going to be the beginning of God bringing into being something out of nothing – bringing something new in this strange vacuum, which it is our privilege to be faffing about in, as we work out what to do, with all the gentleness and patience of Our Lord in our midst, nudging us and prodding us and forgiving us, and giving us nice boyfriends and lovers and adopted children and things like that? Let’s see where he’ll take us.
Alison’s Commentary on In the Closet of the Vatican
On February 23, 2019, Alison, who identifies himself as “a former Dominican and an un-incardinated priest,” wrote a lengthy review of Frédéric Martel’s “bombshell” book, In the Closet of the Vatican: Power, Homosexuality and Hypocrisy.
Alison credits Martel with lifting the veil of secrecy on clerical homosexuality and the clerical “self-loathing” closet in which deacons, priests, religious, bishops and cardinals engage in “dishonestly-lived homosexuality,” and coverup. Alison is all for everyone “coming out” like him, and living “honest” sodomy. Alison says, “I would wish that Church authority might receive the knowledge imparted by this book with serenity and gratitude as a genuine boost to living the Gospel more fully. But I would be mad to count on it.”
Alison “Gaysplains” Away Pederasty
Speaking of mad, Alison has some evocative ideas on the causes of clerical sexual abuse of minors. He denies “the inherent link between homosexuality and paedophilia.” But in doing so, he sets up a strawman man because homosexuals are rarely interested in young children of either sex. Universally speaking, the crime of which we speak is not that of paedophilia (pedophilia) but pederasty – the scientific terminology of hebephilia and ephebophilia have never really caught on in the public square.
Pederasty is the most ancient form of homosexuality and its meaning is almost universally understood as same-sex activity between an adult male and a male adolescent. The peak age of boy victims come between 12 and 15 years of age, that is, pederasts begin where pedophiles, whose main victims are female children, leave off. Further, the nature of the crime differs. Whereas the pedophile generally engages in non-coital, immature sexual gratification, the pederast acts out adult homosexual depersonalized behaviors including fellatio, masturbation, frottage, and sodomy.
Oddly enough, Karen Ocamb, a member of the National Lesbian and Gay Journalists, captured the moment when she viewed a NAMBLA (North American Man/Boy Association) contingent marching in the 25th anniversary parade of the Stonewall riot:
… my skin crawled as these pasty-white, nerdy, hunched-over men scurried away from my tape recorder like cockroaches afraid of the light. These men aren’t gay and we mustn’t let them co-opt our movement. They are simply perverts who like to f- – k children, using the gay community as a Trojan horse to storm the barricades of legitimacy.
Poor Ocamb! She can’t face up to the fact the fact that the Homosexual Collective is essentially a youth culture where men in their 30s are considered “over-the-hill” and that lesbians and sodomites both “recruit like the Army.”
In reality, the Homosexual Collective including homosexual clerics, is indifferent to the welfare of youth as evidenced by their institutionalized silence with regard to informing police authorities of sex crimes against adolescent boys of which they have knowledge.
In my 30 plus years of covering clerical sexual abuse cases, I have never heard of a homosexual cleric of any rank who turned in a fellow homosexual priest preying on young boys. Popular “gay” speaker, David Thorstad, constantly reminds his “gay” audience, without contradiction, that, “Man-boy love relationships are… a happy feature of the rebellion of youth and its irrepressible search for self-discovery. Most of us, given the opportunity and the assurance of safety, would no doubt choose to share our sexuality with someone under the age of consent.”
Sex Between Adult Sodomites Inconsequential
According to Alison, his “gaysplaining,” as he calls it, is often difficult for straight people to understand. Here is one of his examples regarding “continence:”
… In the first place, despite the endless moralistic hullabaloo which surrounds them, sexual acts between consenting adult members of the same sex are about as inconsequential as any human activity can be. They harm no one, and produce neither babies nor any noticeable physiological or intellectual alteration in those participating. Furthermore, if Father X goes on holiday each year with his friend Brian, can anyone say whether they have sex or not? More to the point: who on earth could care! The matter has no discernible consequence.
Yes. Yes. Mr. Alison. I get it. Just ask Uncle Teddy McCarrick. Please continue.
This is not the same with straight people, where sexual acts can have notable consequences… Straight clerical incontinence is consequential in matters of justice and of reproductive possibilities in a way that gay clerical incontinence just isn’t. This is not to make a claim about any of this being good or bad; it is merely to point out, in purely functional terms, that whether a gay clergymen is “practicing” or not may be a matter of spiritual importance to him personally, but as regards the working of the clerical system, it is both invisible and irrelevant.
So, the presence of homosexuality in the clergy is not itself the problem, since homosexuality in itself is no more an indicator of paedophilia than heterosexuality. The question of whether or not any particular gay priest is “practicing” has zero impact on the continued functioning of the system of mendacity. No, the really hard nut to crack, the one facing up to which is now ineluctable thanks, among other factors, to Martel’s book, is the issue of honesty: truthfulness of life lived by sufficient numbers that blackmailability by the omertà of badly-lived homosexuality is no longer a real threat.
Alison claims that the solution to clerics leading a destructive “double life” is to have the Church do away with any stigma regarding homosexuality so that clerical sodomites (and lesbian nuns) can come out of the closet and be who they are:
It is not infrequent that conflicted young gay men join the seminary or its equivalent, initially playing along with whatever dishonesty is required. This may merely be the same hypervigilance that they were living with as not yet “out” adolescents brought up amidst religious aversion to homosexuality. If the general theological and human education they receive in seminary is any good ― which it very often is ― and if they are taught properly to read and to understand the Gospels, and if there are genuine and decent spiritual directors available to them, it is not at all surprising that they will discover over time what is in fact true: that there is nothing wrong with who they are, and that official teaching on the matter is simply false. Grace will have its way!
That these men should then, as time goes by, find others like themselves, whether clerics or laymen, and in some cases form couples, is par for the course. They will probably have discovered that their commitment to celibacy is null. Because at the time their commitment was made, one party ― Church authority ― was lying to them concerning both who they are, and their freedom to opt for partnership…
Alison concludes his book review thusly:
Learning, and then teaching, the truth concerning the regularly occurring, non-pathological minority variant in the human condition called “homosexuality” is what will set us free. I hope that Martel’s book gives strong impetus to that process. Those trapped in the self-reinforcing structure of systemic mendacity which he describes, as well as those they serve, are, whether they know it or not, crying out for that mercy.
Revisiting Pope Francis and “the Power of the Keys”
And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven. (Matthew 16:19)
This commentary opened with the story of Pope Francis calling James Alison in the summer of 2017 and offering him “the power of the keys” not once, but twice. Francis also urged Alison to “discretion,” and not to “cause problems for good bishops.”
His advice seems to have fallen on deaf ears.
Therefore, I would like to conclude this article with a reminder of the phrase used by Francis and what it truly means according to the writings of Saint Alphonsus de Liguori on Dignity and Duties of the Priest.
On the Dignity of the Priestly Office
- Priests are chosen by God to manage on earth all his concerns and interests.
- Priests are the dispensers of the divine graces and the companions of God.
- “Oh, how great is their power,” says St. Laurence Justinian, speaking of priests. “A word falls from their lips and the body of Christ is there substantially formed from the matter of bread, and the Incarnate Word descended from heaven, is found really present on the table of the altar.” Never did divine goodness give such power to the angels.
- According to St. Ambrose, the dignity of the priest as far exceeds that of kings, as the value of gold surpasses that of lead. The reason is, because the power of kings extends only to temporal goods and to the bodies of men, but the power of the priest extends to spiritual goods and to the human soul.
- “O wonderful dignity of the priests,” cries out St. Augustine; “in their hands, as in the womb of the Blessed Virgin, the Son of God becomes incarnate.”
- The priest holds the place of the Savior himself, when, by saying Ego te absolve, he absolves from sin. This great power, which Jesus Christ has received from his eternal Father, he has communicated to his priests.
Great are the Obligations of the Priesthood
- Priests ascend to a great height, but in their ascent, they must be assisted by great virtue; otherwise, instead of meriting a reward, they shall be reserved for severe chastisement.
- And according to St. Augustine, a man entering the ecclesiastical state imposes on himself the obligation of being holy.
- Thus the priest should keep not only at a distance from every vice, but should also make continual efforts to arrive at perfection.
- “But,” says St. Augustine, “what a horrible thing to hear the tongue that calls down the Son of God from heaven to earth speaking against God; and to see the hands that are bathed in the blood of Jesus Christ polluted with the filthiness of sin.”
- Thomas says that the word macula includes every defect: “Whoever is addicted to any vice should not be admitted to Holy Orders.”
- Hence, if a priest is not holy, he is in great danger of being lost.
- The sin of a priest is very grievous, because he sins in the view of the light; in consenting to sin he knows well what he does.
- Every sin of a priest is a sin of malice. According to St. Thomas, the sin of malice is that which is committed with knowledge.
- “Greater knowledge is followed by greater punishment,” says St. John Chrysostom. “The sin to which the priest consents may be committed by many seculars, but his chastisement shall be far more severe, because his blindness shall be far greater than theirs.”
- Hence St. Jerome justly says,” There is not in the whole world a monster to be compared with a priest in the state of sin, for the unfortunate man will not bear with correction.”
- It was revealed to St. Bridget that priest who are sinners “will find themselves deeper in hell that all the other damned.”
The Keys of the Kingdom are Entrusted to Priests
- “The Blessed Virgin was eminently more perfect that the apostles,” says Innocent III; “it was, however, not to her, but only to the apostles, that the Lord entrusted the keys of the kingdom of heaven.”
- “They [priests] are,” says St. Prosper, “the vigilant guardians to whom the Lord has confided the keys of the kingdom of heaven.
- “Although,” says St. Peter Damian, “angels may be present, they yet wait for the priest to exercise his power, but not one of them has the power of the keys – of binding and of loosening.”
After reading the words of Saint Alphonsus de Liguori and his companions, can there be any doubt that by again offering the keys of the Kingdom to Mr. James Alison, Francis is giving the unfortunate unrepentant sodomite the keys to Hell?
Robert Shine, ““Pope Francis Phones Prominent Gay Theologian and Priest James Alison, Restores Him to Ministry,” September 29, 2019, at https://www.newwaysministry.org/2019/09/29/pope-francis-phones-prominent-gay-theologian-and-priest-james-alison-restores-him-to-ministry/.
 Ibid. Note: the above conversation was anonymously related first by Frédéric Martel in his book, In the Closet of the Vatican published in February 2019.
 See Alison’s father’s obituary at https://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/michael-alison-550011.html
 James Alison interview with David Rutledge, “Encounter,” ABC Radio National, October 10, 2010 at https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/archived/encounter/james-alison-sexuality-certainty-and-salvation/3694924#transcript.
 “Male Homosexuality – Its Nature and Causes,” The Rite of Sodomy, pp. 385-387.
 Ibid., 386.
 Ibid., pp. 942-944.
 Oral history at LGBTQ Religious Archives.
 Oral history at https://lgbtqreligiousarchives.org/oral-histories/james-alison.
 For an in-depth view of the multi-faceted causes of homosexuality which contradict Alison’s theories, see The Rite of Sodomy(2006) pp.369-398. Two more recent studies from The New Atlantis Journal for August 23, 2016 and American Psychological Association were highlighted by Claire Chretien in “The LGBT fraud has been exposed, and they’re definitely not happy about it,” available at https://www.lifesitenews.com/opinion/deceit-and-lies-we-have-been-told-on-homosexuality.
James Alison interview with David Rutledge, “Encounter.”
 James, Alison, “Opinion Welcome to my world: Notes on the reception of Frédéric Martel’s bombshell,” at https://www.abc.net.au/religion/frédéric-martel-and-the-structure-of-the-clerical-closet/10843678. The article has been reprinted on many websites that promote the Mimetic theory of René Girard.
 See Engel, “Pedophilia, Pederast, and Male Intergenerational Sex,” The Rite of Sodomy, pp. 443-467.
 Ibid., p.445.
 Ibid., p.452.
 Ibid., p. 450.
 James Alison, “Opinion Welcome” commentary for ABC Australia.
 Robert Shine, New Ways Ministry article.
 St. Alphonsus de Liguori, Dignity and Duties of the Priest or Selva: A Collection of Materials for Ecclesiastical Retreats, Rule of Life and Spiritual Rules by a Doctor of the Church. Available from St. Pius X Press and from Amazon in Kindle format.
 Ibid., p. 24.
 Ibid., p. 28.
 Ibid., p. 27.
 Ibid., p. 29.
 Ibid., p. 32.
 Ibid., p. 34.
 Ibid., p. 48.
 Ibid., p. 49.
 Ibid., p. 51.
 Ibid., p.58.
 Ibid., p.68.
 Ibid., p. 70.
 Ibid., p. 71.
 Ibid., p. 72.
 Ibid., p 76.
 Ibid., p. 79.
 Ibid., pp. 31-32.
 Ibid., p. 28.