By: Randy Engel
There’s a saying that, “History repeats itself,” which is true enough from a macro-point of view. But history never repeats itself exactly the same at the micro-level. The characters and the timing, circumstances, etc. are always different.
The early Prolife Movement, composed primarily of Catholic lay men and women (unpaid) with the support of local pastors, had its best and perhaps only shot at stopping legalized abortion (including abortifacient drugs and devices) BEFORE Griswold vs Conn. and Roe vs Wade. Tragically, it’s a shot that likely will not pass our way again, barring Divine intervention, thanks to the American bishops who placed their trust in men like McHugh and Bernardin.
Long after the SCC debacle was just a fading heartbreaking memory, the betrayals of the Prolife Movement by McHugh continued unabated. With rare exceptions like Cardinal Patrick O’Boyle of Washington, D.C., and New York Auxiliary Bishop Austin Vaughn, no American bishop sought to dethrone McHugh as their official spokesman on family and prolife issues.
Prolifers Lose Battle Against March of Dimes
Man is not an animal by nature;
the table not a feeding trough,
and the home not a biological experimental station.
Fr. Thomas J. Gerard, 1912
Fr. Gerrard dubbed radical eugenics doctrine as “a complete return to the life of the beast,” which described the beliefs of Catholic bishops and clergy on the creed of eugenics at the turn of the 20thcentury in America.
A half a century later, McHugh was able to turn that opinion on its head.
The most intense battle against eugenics, specifically eugenic abortion, – the cold, calculated slaughter of unborn children suspected of carrying a genetic disorder or physical or mental handicap – took place within the context of an epic-making 30- year long prolife battle against the National Foundation/March of Dimes (MOD).
Using his usual modus operandi of stealth, deception, duplicity and secret memos to the American bishops, McHugh, an Advisory Board member and willing and enthusiastic champion of the MOD, defended the well-documented anti-life activities of the eugenic-based organization which included the promotion, research and funding of non-therapeutic amniocentesis and fetoscopy, lethal live human fetal experimentation, the development of abortifacient devices, classroom sex instruction, lobbying for expanded, federally-funded eugenics research and services, etc., etc., etc.
Not even when the U.S. Coalition for Life headed by this writer exposed a MOD research grant of $9,240 grant to Peter A. J. Adam of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland to study fetal brain fuel metabolism at the University of Helsinki, Finland – research that involved the severing and perfusion of heads of live aborted babies, ages 3 to 5 months gestation delivered by hysterotomy – did a single American bishop repudiate McHugh’s backing of the MOD.
In the fall of 1973, when the MOD was on the ropes, and a national prolife boycott loomed on the horizon, the MOD called upon its secret weapon – James McHugh, now raised to the rank of Monsignor and a Papal Chamberlain by Paul VI – to bail the MOD out of its self-inflicted anti-life quagmire.
On November 7, 1973, Msgr. McHugh released the first of several reports in defense of the MOD titled. “National Foundation-March of Dimes and Abortion.” McHugh stated that he had met with MOD officials their future grant proposals would not directly encourage abortion. The report along with a pro-MOD information packet was distributed by the Family Life Office to the American bishops and parochial school and Catholic organization around the nation. For its part, the MOD’s National Office in White Plains, NY, used it as a battering ram against prolife groups especially the USCL that had led the decades old fight against the MOD.
Two years later, on March 11, 1975, McHugh using the new NCCB Committee for Population and Pro-Life Activities issued his second major pro-MOD memorandum marked CONFIDENTIAL to the American bishops in which he reiterated his earlier contention that some prolife groups had “misunderstood” the MOD’s (eugenic) philosophy and activity. 
McHugh stated that the MOD was trying to manifest “a more visible prolife image” (as opposed to reality); that the MOD had made a generous grant to the Catholic University of America to develop a prolife curriculum for parochial schools (bribery); that charges against the MOD “continued to be vague and indefinite” and shouldn’t be permitted to prevent Catholics and Catholic schools from collecting for the MOD. The memo was signed, “Sincerely in Christ.”
One year later, on May 25, 1976, Msgr. McHugh issued a third report for the American Bishops on the MOD controversy titled, “Amniocentesis – A Life Saving Technique,” in which McHugh failed to distinguish between truly therapeutic amniocentesis used in the third trimester of pregnancy for polyhdramnios, or RH immunization, or assessment of fetal maturity, and mid-trimester non-therapeutic amniocentesis used for determining if a eugenic abortion is “needed” to eliminate an affected unborn child.
Among the many abortionists that served as national advisors and grantees of the MOD, Dr. Henry Foster, President Clinton’s ill-fated candidate for the Office of Surgeon General spoke plainly when he confirmed that “we do mid-trimester amniocentesis to decide whether or not the pregnancy should continue, and to provide a therapeutic abortion.”
But McHugh called the mid-trimester (“screening-to-kill”) prenatal diagnostic procedure, “life-saving.”
Who to believe – Foster or McHugh?
Not surprisingly, the American bishops, in particular, Cardinal John Cody of Chicago, backed McHugh to the bloody end.
Thus, thanks to the corporate silence of the NCCB/USCC (later the USCCB) and the silent American hierarchy, today’s Catholic woman continues to undergo prenatal diagnostic procedures and elective abortion of affected unborn children at about the same rate as her Protestant and Jewish counterparts.
The Legal Services Corporation Debacle
During his many years at the NCCB/USCC, McHugh was able to successfully layer the Dearden/Bernardin collectivist liberal agenda onto his own “Respect Life Program.” In a “Letter to the Editor” to Crisis Magazine in February 1989, McHugh proudly announce that while Cardinal Bernardin has frequently spoken out on the consistent ethic of life, “the basic concept originated with the establishment of his Respect Life Program in 1972.”
The net effect of McHugh’s “Seamless Garment” strategy as it related to pro-life issues such as the intrinsically evil acts of a directly willed and procured abortion, was to water down the importance of these issues in the eyes of the Catholic laity as well as the general population. This strategy also provided loop-holes for raving pro-abort politicians such as Senator Ted Kennedy, who could now escape the Church’s blanket condemnation of their consistent anti-life voting record in their next bid for re-election.
The battle between Msgr. McHugh and the Pro-Life Movement over the pro-abortion activities of the Legal Services Corporation illustrates what happened when there was a conflict of interest between prolife forces and the leftist, liberal legislative priorities of the NCCB/USCC.
On June 21, 1973, Congressman Larry Hogan offered an abortion prohibition amendment to prevent the federally funded Legal Services Corporation from continuing to providing legal assistance for “the poor” to procure an abortion, or to force individuals and/or institutions to perform abortions against their own religious beliefs or moral convictions. The Hogan amendment passed the House, but similar efforts in the Senate failed. The measure then went to conference.
“A National Alert,” in the form of an eight-page memorandum on the anti-life activities of Legal Services by the USCL was sent to every pro-life group in the United States. Within 48 hours, almost every Congressman and Senator got the same message – “Abort Legal Services NOT Unborn Babies!”
As it happened, the USCC’s Social Justice Office and its legal staff were also pushing hard on the Legal Services issue, but unfortunately, it was in the opposite direction! It was not wholly unexpected, therefore when McHugh put a call into the USCL office to express his disapproval of the campaign against the Legal Services Corporation. The USCL held firm as did all the grassroots prolife organization, but the money and power of the USCC proved to be too much. When this sorry legislative battle over the Legal Services Corporation came to an end, the score was: radical pro-abort attorneys-1, preborn children-0.
The Vietnamese Abortion Scandal
The tale of the abortion of Vietnamese refugees following the fall of Saigon in the spring of 1975 was an odyssey of death in which McHugh’s Prolife Office played an important role. I recall I was in the USCL basement office when I received a phone tip from a Vietnamese friend that pregnant Vietnamese women who were being housed at make-shift refugee camp sites in San Diego, Calif., and Indiantown Gap, Penna., were being secretly herded to off-base killing centers for abortions. A quick series of phone calls confirmed that the federal HEW Office of Population Affairs and the Department of Defense had created a quasi-secret bureaucratic maze to “make available” birth control (coils and pills) to refugee families, most of whom were Catholic, and to funnel pregnant refugee women to local abortion centers. Catholic chaplains and Catholic Relief Services workers at the camp site claimed they knew nothing about the underground abortion railroad.
In desperation, a phone call was placed to the Bishops’ Prolife Committee at the NCCB/USCC. McHugh’s office along with abortionist Dr. Louis Hellman’s Population Office, claimed the USCL was mistaken – no abortions were being performed on Vietnamese refugee women.
In the end, with the help of a Vietnamese chaplain and some prolife congressmen, the HEW/DOD abortion operation was shut down, but not before hundreds of Vietnamese preborn children were murdered in the “land of the free and the home of the brave.”
The following year, in testimony prepared for the January 12, 1976 Oversight Hearings on the Indochina Refugee Program of the House Committee on Immigration, Citizenry, and International Law, this writer recalled for the Congressmen a traditional Vietnamese folk tale about a giant (Communism) who comes into a village one day and is hailed as a savior of the people. Too late do the villagers discover that the giant has no heart. No heart, no mercy – just like the clerical bureaucrats at the NCCB/USCC.
Was I bitter about the Vietnamese abortion massacre? You bet! And obviously, I still am.
McHugh Takes a Rome Sabbatical
In 1978, McHugh departed for Rome to pursue advanced studies in moral theology and ethics, but he continued to influence his replacement, Dr. Daniel Dolesh, the new Chair of the USCC Department of Education’s National Committee for Human Sexuality. Dolesh, like McHugh was well connected to the AASEC-SIECUS- Planned Parenthood anti-life Axis.
In 1981, Dolesh’s National Committee for Human Sexuality issued a revised set of USCC “sex education guidelines” for Catholic schools titled, Education in Human Sexuality for Christians.
The Dolesh “guidelines” charged teachers in Catholic schools to provide a complete and systematic education in sex for all their students, including formal instruction on all major aberrations of sexual development: “…. psycho-sexual changes, psycho-sexual deviations such as homosexuality, transvestism, pedophilia, incest, natural and artificial family planning… myths of masturbation… different sexual lifestyles… and physical and emotional responses in intercourse.”
The last this writer heard about Dolesh was in a February 6, 1986, Plain Dealer article that featured the former USCC official as co-host of a radio-call-in-show called “SexLine.” The USCC rode out the Dolesh scandal as best it could. In the meantime, his sex program remained in Catholic schools until November 1990 when it was replaced by Human Sexuality: A Catholic Perspective and Lifelong Learning. This sex curriculum was designed by a secret NCCB/USCC “Sex Education Committee” whose membership was later revealed to include none other than Msgr. James T. McHugh.
McHugh Accepts NFP Appointment
In 1981, McHugh returned to the United States having earned his doctorate in Sacred Theology from the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas. He returned to the Newark Archdiocese and took up residence at the Cathedral of the Sacred Heart, the seat of the Newark Archdiocese. It was about a year later in 1982, that a young Cuban priest by the name of Manuel Aurelii Cruz also took up residence at the Cathedral. The two would become lasting friends. The two would also become protégés of ArchbishopTheodore McCarrick who was installed as Archbishop of Newark in July 1986.
In the meantime, McHugh had a plush job awaiting him.
Homosexual Cardinal Terence Cardinal, with the approval of his fellow bishops, had just created the Diocesan Development Program for Natural Family Planning (DDP/NFP). Msgr. James T. McHugh, who, in his younger days had been an advocate of contraception for fornicating unmarried couples, was named National Director.
Anti-life forces were please with fact that the American bishops has created the DDP/NFP office since they clearly understood that once the Catholic hierarchy attached itself to the federal birth control financial gravy train, it was unlikely that they would oppose Title X-funded population control programs at home and abroad. The Sangerite lobbyists were great fortune tellers.
Reflecting on the Catholic bishops’ new aggressive NFP programs, pro-abortionist Dr. Carl Djerassi of Stanford University, known as the “Father of the Pill,” claimed that improved NFP methods would ultimately lead to better methods of abortion [early abortifacients!]
In his autobiography, The Pill, Pygmy Chimps, and Degas’ Horse, Djerassi states: “The determination of the “safe period” is one of the few areas of contraception where current scientific advances, that is, high technology, may actually serve to overcome some of the political obstacles, and to do so with extra bonuses outside the specific realm of birth control…. and that any addition to the contraceptive supermarket (metaphorically speaking) is desirable.”
Djerassi concludes his comments on “jet-age” rhythm methods by holding out the promise that improved methods of NFP, which detect ovulation, could be used in conjunction with an abortifacient once-a-month pill that would “prevent implantation of a fertilized egg [human embryo] without disrupting the next menstrual flow.”
McHugh Regains Control of NFP and Prolife Offices
The timing of McHugh’s appointment to the new NFP office in 1981 was fortuitous. McHugh’s mentor, 51-year-old homosexual “Teddy” McCarrick, Cooke’s former secretary, had just been appointed Bishop of the Diocese of Metuchen (NJ) where he promptly began to groom and abuse his seminarians and young priests.
Also, fellow-homosexual Cooke had just become the new Chair of the Bishops’ Committee for Po-Life Affairs. This meant that McHugh was able to quickly reestablish his critical ties (and control) of both the Bishops’ Committee for Pro-Life Affairs and the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment (NCHLA).
On the practical side, his new position relieved him of any permanent pastoral duties in the Archdiocese of Newark and gave him more than sufficient financial resources by which he could maintain his cosmopolitan lifestyle and extensive travel itinerary, especially to the Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See to the United Nations in Manhattan, where he served as the Vatican’s expert on Population Affairs.
McCarrick Consecrates McHugh A Bishop
On November 20, 1987, sixteen months after McCarrick had taken over the Archdiocese of Newark, McHugh was appointed an auxiliary bishop of Newark. McHugh was consecrated bishop at Sacred Heart Cathedral in the Newark by Archbishop McCarrick on January 25, 1988.
The Troubled Camden Diocese
In June of 1989, McCarrick secured the Diocese of Camden for his long-time protégé. According to Richard Doerflinger, McHugh was sent to “clean up” the homosexual-dominated diocese of Camden headed by Bishop George H. Guilfoyle, “Queen of the Fairies,” but that never occurred.
Bishop Guilfoyle, a carry-over from the homosexual Spellman-Cooke line in New York, with the assistance of his “pimp,” and multi-generational sex abuser, Msgr. Philip T. Rigney, filled pastoral vacancies and make hierarchical recommendations for priests having a homosexual propensity. Guilfoyle’s “spiritual director” was Father Patrick Weaver, a serial predator of young teen boys including his own nephew. As one of Weaver’s victims remarked, “there was a notorious band of priests who just blanketed the Camden Diocese in the ’60s and ’70s …the monsters I lived with weren’t hiding under my bed. They were giving me communion.”
In 1989, Msgr. Rigney, retired to the “gay-friendly” Diocese of Palm Beach then under Bishop Thomas Daily. Rigney arrived in Palm Beach with a letter of recommendation from Camden’s new Bishop James T. McHugh.
Bishop McHugh Continues Cover-Up in Camden
In 1989, the year that McHugh was installed in Camden, the diocese made an out-of-court settlement with a victim of Rev. J. McElroy, who admitted molesting a 12-year-old boy in a shower stall at St. Francis de Sales rectory in Barrington. McElroy received a five-year jail sentence. Another victim of McElroy who received a settlement of $700,000 from the diocese, claimed that the priest had threatened him into silence with guns and knives.
Later, Bishop McHugh permitted a convicted sexual predator named Father William C. O’Connell, who hailed from the Diocese of Providence, R.I, to set up shop as a “volunteer” at Our Lady Star of the Sea Church in Cape May, N.J.
In response to criticism that the Camden Diocese should have barred a convicted criminal from serving in any capacity as a priest in Camden, McHugh’s public relations officer, Andrew J. Walton, responded that the diocese did not know of that [past] conviction. In a follow-up statement, diocesan lawyers in court papers claimed that even if the Camden Chancery knew of the priest’s criminal past, “It is well-recognized that a bystander has no duty to provide affirmative aid to a person in peril.”
According to New Jersey lawyer, Stephen Rubino, the Camden Diocese has one of highest rates of clerical sex abuse cases in the nation. It did not help when Bishop McHugh described the attempts of victim survivors to get a hearing as a new kind of terrorism in the Church.
McHugh Gets Diocese of Rockville Center
In December 1998, McHugh was appointed coadjutor of Rockville Centre, N.Y., one of the richest dioceses in the United States.
In 2000, when McCarrick was appointed the Cardinal Archbishop of Washington D.C., McHugh also rose in the ranks as Bishop of Rockville Centre.
But he never got to enjoy the spoils of his office. Before the year was out, at the age of 68, Bishop James Thomas McHugh had gone to his Maker.
His funeral Mass at St. Agnes Cathedral in Rockville Centre was said by homosexual prelate Archbishop Edward Egan, a long-time friend of McHugh from the 1960s when Egan was Secretary to Cardinal Cody in Chicago.
McCarrick said, “I have never known braver and more dedicated man of God. We will miss his clear and constant voice.”
Bishop McHugh’s Double Life
There were a number of young, relatively handsome homosexual clerics and laymen who came in and out of McHugh’s life outside of the key homosexual bedfellows that dominated the Catholic hierarchy during this time including Cardinals McCarrick, Bernardin, and Cooke.
One of them was a former priest, Msgr. Carl J. Marucci, who served as McHugh’s personal secretary. Except for McHugh’s untimely death, today we might have been addressing Mr. Marucci as Bishop Marucci.
The Life and Times of Msgr. Carl Marucci
Born in 1958 in Philadelphia, Penna., Carl J. Marucci, a talented classical pianist received his B.A. in Philosophy and Theology from the University of Scranton (1976-1979). He was also enrolled at Marwood University’s School of Music Studies from 1976 to 1978.
The eldest Marucci son attended the now defunct St. Pius X Seminary in the Scranton Diocese, and later Immaculate Conception Seminary School of Theology (1979-1982), and earned his Master of Divinity degree at Seton Hill. The youthful, effeminate, and openly “swish” flamer was ordained in 1983 to the Camden Diocese then under homosexual Bishop George H. Guilfoyle.
Marucci served in two New Jersey parishes before Bishop McHugh, Guilfoyle’s new replacement, brought him to the Camden Diocesan Chancery Office to as his personal secretary in 1989. Marucci resided with McHugh at Marywood, the bishop’s official residence in Blackwood, N.J.
During his four years serving in the Camden Diocese, Marucci held the position of Vice Chancellor and Assistant Director of the Office of Public Relations & Telecommunications, and multiple fund-raising duties.
For his services, McHugh secured for Marucci, the honorary title of Monsignor as well as a knighthood in the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem.
From 1991 to 1993 Marucci attended St. Charles Borromeo Seminary where he earned an additional degree in Medical Ethics.
Along with his brother, Louis, also a priest of the Camden Diocese and an accomplished harpist, Marucci co-founded the well-known Jubilate Deo Chorale & Orchestra.
In 1994, Bishop McHugh, who was serving as an Advisor on Population Affairs to the Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See to the United Nations, secured for Marucci a diplomatic post as an attaché to the Cardinal ambassador of the U.N. mission in downtown Manhattan.
Designed to give Marucci a more cosmopolitan world view, the new position was a step-up the ecclesiastical ladder for the 35-year old cleric who resided at nearby St. Agnes Parish during the weekdays, but on weekends could be seen driving off into the night on his motorcycle, giving new meaning to the clerical quip, “Lace by day, leather by night.”
When Pope John Paul II came to the U.N. in 1995, Msgr. Marucci served as head protocol and security coordinator for the Office of Permanent Observer for which he earned a commendation from the FBI.
In addition to his regular duties at the Office of Permanent Observer, Marucci was made the Executive Director of the million-dollar Path for Peace Foundation, the only official voice of the Catholic Church at the U.N. Independent from, but in collaboration with the Vatican’s Permanent Observer Mission, the Path to Peace Foundation directs its activities primarily, albeit not exclusively, to the international stage of the United Nations.
Thus, Marucci’s original three-year diplomatic appointment at the Permanent Observer Mission and the Path for Peace Foundation extended to eight years, from 1994-2002.
By 2002, Bishop McHugh of the Rockville Centre Diocese was dead. Unless Marucci could acquire a new patron, his chances of climbing further up the ecclesiastical ladder were nil. The following year, Marucci left the priesthood and his plush UN job, and joined an ecumenical, “gay-friendly” church in upstate New York where he played the organ.
However, it wasn’t until ten years later that this writer learned of Marucci’s change of status when he made national news by proposing to his boyfriend, Andrew “Drew” Marsenison, in a flash mob at the Bethesda Fountain in Central Park and later “marrying” Drew in a lavish New York City “wedding” which is still online.
Marucci is currently Senior Vice President of the Cohen Veterans Network and holds membership in OutBüro – Gay Professional Network and LGBT Entrepreneurs. His curriculum vitae continues to display his knighthood in the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem. All attempts to get the Order to withdraw the honor have fallen on deaf ears.
The Anti-Life Legacy of Bishop McHugh Continues
Normally, this would be the end of a long tale of woe of the early years of the Prolife Movement featuring Msgr., later, Bishop McHugh.
But we do not live in normal times.
Bishop McHugh died on December 10, 2000, but his anti-life legacy of deceit, compromise, and “common ground” has enjoyed an unfortunate comeback over the last decade in certain “progressive” wings of the Prolife Movement. In the second and final chapter to this series we will explore McHugh’s old “common ground” strategy as it has been reinterpreted and reimaged under the banner of “CONSENSUS” hoisted by the Supreme Knights of Columbus and the Executives of the March for Life Committee.
[In the fourth chapter to this series we will explore McHugh’s old “common ground” strategy as it has been reinterpreted and reimagined under the banner of “CONSENSUS” hoisted by the Supreme Knights of Columbus and the Executives of the March for Life Committee.]
 Father Thomas J. Gerard, The Church and Eugenics, 1912 as quoted by Daniel J. Kevles, “Annals of Eugenics,” The New Yorker, Part III, p. 97.
 Engel, “Msgr. McHugh and the March of Dimes,” The McHugh Chronicles, pp. 41-80.See also, Randy Engel, A March of Dimes Primer – The A to Z od Eugenic Killing, USCL ,Box 315, Export, PA 1991.
 U.S. Coalition for Life, “Who Will Defend Michael?’’ Part II, pp. 15-16.
 McHugh memo dated November 7, 1973, “The National Foundation-March of Dimes and Abortion.”
 Confidential McHugh memo dated March 11, 1973.
 McHugh memo dated May 25, 1976 issued by the Bishops’ Committee for Prolife Activities.
 Dr. Henry Foster, Transcript of the Public Hearing of the Ethics Advisory Board of the NIH, Meeting V, Seattle, Washington, November 9, 1978, p. 197.
 Engel, McHugh Chronicles, p.33
 Randy Engel, “Odyssey of Death,” Prepared testimony for the Jan. 12, 1976 Oversight Hearings on the Indochina Refugee Program of the House Committee on Immigration, Citizenry and International Law, Jan. 12, 1976.
 USCC Department of Education, Education in Human Sexuality for Christians, Washington, D.C., 1981.
 Ibid., pp. 84-87.
 Letter from Bishop William C. Newman, Chairman of the Task Force for the Revision of the Guidelines on Human Sexuality, to author, dated April 17, 1989. Bishop William revealed the names of the bishops serving on the Task Force after one year of calls into his Baltimore Catholic Center Office. However, he refused to give a complete list of all members of the Task Force stating: “Since this document on the human sexuality guidelines will be approved by the bishops and be their document, we do not think it appropriate to publish the names of the laity, religious and clergy who were a resource to the Task Force.” The author later obtained a complete list of members of the Task Force from a private source.
 While in Rome, McHugh became a special assistant at the World Synod of Bishops on The Christian Family in the Contemporary World (1980).
 The DDP/NFP program was funded by an annual grant from he Knights of Columbus under S.K. Virgil Dechant.
 One week before Pope Paul VI issued Humanae Vitae, Father McHugh openly stated his belief that “responsible parenthood, in its ultimate understanding,” requires the use of contraceptives in any pre-marital intercourse to ensure that the act be absolutely non-productive. McHugh made the statements at a Rockefeller Foundation-funded Conference on “Sex Education, Family Planning, and Family Life Counseling in the Medical School Curriculum” held at Creighton University School of Medicine from July 17-18, 1968.
 Carl Djerassi, The Pill, Pygmy Chimps, and Degas’ Horse, Basic Books, NY, 1992, pp. 262-263.
 Ibid., p. 263.
 Paul C. Grzella, “McCarrick allegations of sexual conduct with men,” Bridgewater Courier News, September 14, 2018.
 For a comprehensive view of the Camden Diocese under Bishop Guilfoyle, see The Rite of Sodomy, pp. 672-676.
 Ibid. p. 675.
 Bob Keeler, “The New Shepherd: A Firm Hand for the LI Flock,” Newsday, February 21, 1999.
 Brian Caulfield, “Bishop McHugh – Leader of Long Island Catholics was strong pro-life voice in nation,” Catholic New York , December 14, 2000.
 The Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations is the representative of the Holy See at the United Nations. It was established on April 6, 1964. This diplomatic mission does not have the status of Permanent Representative because the Holy See is not a member of the U.N. The Path to Peace was established much later in 1991.
2 Judy Baehr, “Priest Gets New Job With Vatican, Inquirer, April 1, 1994.